1995 Ph.D., Kinesiology - University of Texas at Austin. Specialization: Physical Development and Aging. Dissertation: Somatic Growth, Maturation, and Submaximal Power Output of Polish Adolescents.

1985 M.A., Physical Education - University of Maryland. Thesis: Hip-Knee Synergism and Kinematic Evidence of Neuromuscular Development in the First Month of Upright Locomotion.

1979 B.S., Health, Physical Education, and Recreation - West Chester State College. Specialization: Recreational Outdoor Pursuits; K-12 Teacher Certification (Summa Cum Laude).